Sociological and Psychogenic Theories

Respond to 2 topics cj-326

Briana Baker’s article

Briana Baker’s article while attempting to highlight the differences between sociological and psychogenic theories of delinquency, the distinction does not come out clearly. The author largely fails to establish the existing difference as there is a general lack of use of published works on the topic. For instance, the author notes that “I feel like in a sense the sociological theories see it more of an effect on those of certain circumstances and deeply rooted issues, while the psychogenic side handles it more like a mental illness overall, a mental illness that requires some form of treatment rather it be medicinal or physical.” By resorting to personal feelings, this post offers little in terms of scholarly evidence that is necessary to support such arguments. Furthermore, the post is poor in-text cited and referenced. Sociological and Psychogenic Theories

Assessment of the sociological and psychogenic theory differences

In regard to Brittany Wilson’s post, the author provides a fair assessment of the sociological and psychogenic theory differences. In addition, the author has managed to successfully address the issue of nature versus nurture by using theoretical frameworks to explain the two. For instance, social learning theory as used in this case helps to understand people’s behavior within the context of their natural settings. Similarly, the labeling theory is helpful in understanding people’s perceptions towards others and how it affects social relations. The use of scholarly works is important as it provides the necessary support for the arguments offered in the post. However, just like Briana, Brittany’s in-text citation and referencing needs improvement. Sociological and Psychogenic Theories


Overall, the two authors have made attempts to address the issue at hand, that is, explaining the sociological and psychogenic basis of delinquency. However, Brittany does a better job compared to Briana, especially in regard to the depth of discussion. However, both need to familiarize themselves on in-text citation and referencing guidelines.

Resign Design

Resign Design

Qualitative approach

In view of the identified research gap and the research question, I will adopt the qualitative approach that utilizes a phenomenological research design. According to Grand Canyon University, Center for Innovation and Research Teaching (2019), “the methodology used in phenomenology differs than most other research methodology because the goal is to describe a lived experience, rather than to explain or quantify it in any way” (par. 1). Instructively, phenomenology is exclusively concerned with capturing a participant’s view of his or her experiences hence this methodology neither incorporates a hypothesis nor preformed ideas regarding the data gathered. Resign Design

Why is the design appropriate?

This design is appropriate for studying the research question as it uses various data collection techniques, including participant observation, interview guides, focus group discussions, analysis of diaries, and conversations among others. Notably, this methodology is designed to be open-ended to enable participants give more in-depth information about their experiences, thereby bringing subjectivity into the study of the phenomenon under study. Instructively, “the goal of phenomenological research methods is to maximize the depth of the information collected and therefore, less structured interviews are most effective” (Grand Canyon University, Center for Innovation and Research Teaching, 2019, par. 2). The new elements included in this research design include the use of interviews and Focus Group Discussions. The implementation of this research design will be through bracketing, intuition, analysis, and description. The participants will be sampled purposively, taking into consideration the people who have experienced the phenomenon under study. Resign Design


Grand Canyon University, Center for Innovation and Research Teaching. (2019). Phenomenology methods & data collection. Retrieved from


Religion and American Culture: Reading Summary


“Conservatives are more likely to go to church or synagogue, believe in the literal truth of the bible, oppose abortion, and favor prayer in public schools” (358). Religion

“Liberals, in contrast, are less likely to attend church or synagogue regularly, yet say that religion is important in their lives” (355). Religion

“Conservatives and liberals tend to see the worst in the other” (358).


In his article titled “Old Fissures and New Fractures in American Religious Life” Robert Wuthnow argues that the existing religious animosities and mistrust between conservatives and liberals is as old as religion itself. It is informative to realize that the differences that exist between the two groups are ingrained in people who are ardent believers in the same denominational groups. Conservatives see liberals as people who generally have lost their bearing as far as religious dictums are concern whereas liberals see conservatives as people stuck in a time warp and are impervious to changing times. For conservatives, it is of paramount importance that they stick to age-old religious traditions as required by the religious decrees and doctrines. To them, liberals have no moral or religious backbones worth emulating and are likened to the prodigal son in biblical parlance. Liberals on the other hand view conservatives as people from the past with pretentious affectations towards their fellow human beings. Conservatives are seen as being judgmental, old-fashioned and with a singularity of mindset on questionable Almighty. These divisions can only get worse given today’s human circumstances in which human beings are increasingly becoming individualistic and liberal in thought about religion. Arguably, the American constitution is categorical about religious freedoms and people have every right to follow a path that they deem suitable. Therefore, the religious posturing between conservatives and liberals serves no meaningful purpose in the progress of the American society. Religion


  1. What are the negative social implications of the stand-off between religious conservatives and liberal groups in America?
  2. Can the animosity of between the two religious groups be resolved? Religion

Works Cited

Wuthnow, Robert. “Old Fissures and New Fractures in American Religious Life.” Religion and American Culture, edited by David G. Hackett, Routledge, 2003, pp. 359-371.

Entrepreneurship Essay

Reflective Essay


The term entrepreneurship has its etymological origins from the French word entreprendre, which translates to “undertaking” something. From a business perspective, it means to start a business venture. In this context, an entrepreneur been defined differently by many people. For instance, Schumpter (1934) describes an entrepreneur as a person whose innovations lead to the creation of new methods of production, products, fresh sources of raw materials, and new markets. Largely, an entrepreneur is an individual who initiates a business idea, assumes responsibility, takes risks, creates wealth, and provides employment opportunities to others in society (Deakins & Freel 2006). In our case, coming up with a new business venture was a novel idea that arose during a social outing. We had everything going for us, including educational background in business, energetic, ideas, creativity, risk takers, and a strong social support from our families. Undeniably, in the process of coming up with our business idea we learned a lot, including the importance of interpersonal communication, teamwork, organization, problem-solving, negotiation, and decision-making. Entrepreneurship Essay

Health consciousnesses

Our business venture was informed by our realization that nowadays people are increasingly becoming conscious of their health. The common occurrence of lifestyle health problems has necessitated the need for people to eat healthy foods and join health fitness clubs to shade the extra weight and stay physically fit. In light of people’s increased awareness of the need to stay healthy, we envisioned that by venturing into the health and fitness business, we will exploit the current business opportunities that are available in this industry. According to Fitness Australia (2015), there are several principles that guide a fitness business, including the use of care and skill in delivering health and exercise services, focusing on the customer safety, provision of the customers’ information needs and clearly and fairly communicating with them, provision of a clean, safe, and conducive environment for the staff and clients in compliance with established health and safety rules and regulations, resolving client disputes as fast as possible and fairly, and treating customers fairly. Entrepreneurship Essay

Commercial Awareness and Understanding of Business Functions

Today’s successful business enterprises were started by a person or individuals who had a novel idea and worked hard towards achieving their dream. In entrepreneurship, there are a host of factors that come into play when starting a business, including social, economic, political, environmental, legal, and technological issues that affect organizations (Huczynski & Buchanan 2007). We had to think through these factors and how they were likely to affect our business. More importantly, we had to decide what kind of business to pursue from the several options we had, and in order to achieve this milestone we agreed among us as a matter of principle that any idea suggested was to be considered. In this regard, we held brainstorming sessions in which every member had an opportunity to table a business idea, and several of them came up, including a laundry, a fast food outlet, a delivery service, an internet café, a grocery store, and a health fitness gym. We finally settled for the fitness center.

Business ideas

There are several sources from which one can get his or her business idea. According to Khan (2018), the federal government, consumers, distribution channels, existing goods and services, and research and development are some of the sources of new ideas. However, Khan (2018) cautions that people find it difficult to come up with the right idea for their business venture despite the availability of these different sources. Fortunately for budding entrepreneurs, brainstorming, focus group discussions, and problem inventory are some of the methods that they can use to generate business ideas and test them for feasibility. Arguably, when different people meet to brainstorm on an issue, they can be stimulated to think creatively. Although not all generated ideas will come to fruition, a workable idea can emerge from brainstorming sessions. Entrepreneurship Essay

Brainstorming sessions

Usually, brainstorming sessions are largely unstructured and spontaneous whereby members freely contribute their ideas on the problem at hand. In addition, they combine “a relaxed, informal approach to problem solving with lateral thinking” (AlMutairi, 2015, p. 137). It is important to note that no idea is bad, illogical or wrong during these sessions, and participants’ contributions are all documented for further discussion. During our brainstorming sessions, we experienced some difficulties, including the rejection of some ideas, a move that is not anticipated when such exercises are underway. Despite these challenges, we learned valuable lessons, including the need to have a facilitator during brainstorming sessions, the need to avoid negative criticisms of ideas before they are thoroughly examined and discussed, the necessity of identifying promising ideas, and the importance of refining and prioritizing ideas.

In developing our business venture, we had to come up with an achievable business model that encompassed infrastructure management, various fitness products, customer interface, and financial aspects. Entrepreneurship Essay

Infrastructure management

Our infrastructure management addressed several issues, including activities, resources, and partners. Our key activities included instructional fitness; launching a smart Phone App to select a fitness instructor, fitness central, and order healthy food; analyze a customer’s physical condition; and cooperation with fitness centrals and organizations. Our key resources were human fitness instructors; physical fitness centrals; and IT App Design Company. The following were our partners: fitness centrals, IT companies, fitness equipment manufacturers, fitness organizations, organic food companies, and health organizations.


Our business venture focused on flexibility (finding a professional fitness instructor anytime, anywhere), providing feedback (our customers can upload and update their reviews, and photos), and scientificanalysis (our app collects our customer’s fitness data and body data if upon getting their consent and the results are disseminated to the respective clients). Other value propositions for our customers include health, customization of services, resource sharing, time, professionalism, and quality service delivery.

Customer interface

Our customer interface covered various segments, relationships and channels. For instance, the various customer market segments included fitness enthusiasts, freelancers, sub-health, people in need for professional fitness counseling, and after 1980s. in regard to our channels of communication, we used social media platforms, emails, website, and the smart phone App. In terms of our customer relations, we engaged in exchange interactions, course teaching, professional personal assistance, and communities’ participation.

Financial aspects

Every business venture has its own financial structures to enable it attain its objectives. For our venture, our costs revolved around software development, employee remuneration, and promotions. Our revenue streams included fitness equipment sales, advertisements, and fitness teaching fees. Entrepreneurship Essay

Application and Discussion of (International) Entrepreneurship Literature/Theory

The entrepreneurship concept came into existence in the 1700s, and its meaning has been evolving ever since. According to Shane and Venkataraman (2000, p. 218), entrepreneurship is “the process by which opportunities to create future goods and services are discovered, evaluated and exploited.” Generally, many people equate it with the start of a new business; while on the other hand, some economists believe that an entrepreneur is a person who embraces the risks involved in starting a business enterprise while aiming to make profits. Other people view an entrepreneur as an innovator, a developer of new products and processes that are in short supply in the market, risk taker, and creator of a new economic activity (Gutterman 2012).It is clear that despite the wide ranging definitions of entrepreneurship, the bottom line is that it is a basic ingredient that brings about economic progression and creates employment opportunities in any society.

Technological changes and globalization trends

Today’s technological changes and globalization trends are increasingly reducing the world into one global village that is characterized by international trade, communication, and economic competition. Consequently, many organizations are facing innumerable challenges for being players in the new global economy. It has been noted that ‘On the one hand, to survive, keep pace with speed of advancements and lead in the challenging world is hard, at the same time, this opens up various new and unexplored doors of opportunities’ (Pahuja & Sanjeev 2015, P. 3). Entrepreneurship is a powerful economic undertaking that is offering limitless opportunities to many people around the world, thus it has become a symbol of business acumen and achievement, a factor of change in society. Entrepreneurship Essay Entrepreneurship Essay

Entrepreneurship theories

Entrepreneurship theories have been developed to explain the role of entrepreneurs in the economic processes. For instance the Neo-classical theory that propagates the ideas of Marshall presupposes that markets aims to attain certain equilibrium through perfect competition in which no manufacturer is ascribed any specific innovative role. However, according to Tiryaki (2005, p. 32), ‘the model fails to explain profit and how changes and innovations occur in a capitalist economy and ignores the role of creative entrepreneurs’ effects on economic development.’ Schumpeter disagrees with the Marshallian thinking, for he argues that the economic development undertaken by human beings is as a result of entrepreneurs’ constant creative destructions.  The Schumpeter’s approach sees an entrepreneur as an innovative individual with monopolistic tendencies and not merely an imitator in the production process, and such a person should be offered protection and entrepreneurship should be allowed to thrive.

Neo-Austrian theory

 Lastly, the Neo-Austrian theory as envisioned by Kirzner views an entrepreneur as ‘an alert arbitrager and competition between alert entrepreneurs helps the market clearing process’ (Tiryaki (2005, p. 32). Arguably, every economic agent is in possession of different knowledge and information which promotes that creation of business opportunities for entrepreneurs to exploit, a situation that leads to market equilibrium (Kirzner 1997). These theories offer insights into entrepreneurial processes in market economies. It suffices to note that entrepreneurs use their intelligence, hard work, and ambition to exploit any business opportunity that presents itself to make profits, alter the direction of markets and national economies, and create employment opportunities to numerous people in society.

Problem Solving

Entrepreneurs face a myriad of challenges which, if not overcome, can hinder the realization of good business ideas. Some of the barriers to entrepreneurship include lack of relevant market knowledge, unattainable business concepts, lack of technical skills, inadequate seed capital and resources, monopoly, legal hindrances, insufficient infrastructure, and complacency among others. As novice business starters, we faced a great deal of challenges that needed to be resolved. For instance, we did not have the business skills; we lacked the necessary monetary resources and manpower, we had to compete with well established business enterprises that had operated for quite some time in the industry, and we did not seem to come to a consensus on some of the issues. In order to properly navigate through our challenges, we sought the help of experienced business people with whom we had established social networks with. These people advised us on how to get procure loan from financial institutions, how to pursue our goals despite the competition, the importance of pursuing one’s goals against all odds, and how to agree to disagree on issues without jeopardizing our business venture. Entrepreneurship Essay

Success of any business venture

Problem-solving is among the key factors that determines the success of any business venture. According to Kim, Choi, Sung and Park (2018, p. 4), ‘problem-solving abilities in a volatile and sophisticated knowledge- and technology-based industry are an important ability to drive innovation and sustainable growth and development in the industry.’ There should be a rational approach to solving problems facing budding entrepreneurs. Importantly, individual innovative behavior plays a key role in overcoming problems (Scott & Bruce 1994). More importantly, entrepreneurship education is an area that can assist students to be able to discover and exploit their creative opportunities for value creation (Kim, Song & An 2016). Therefore, problem-solving skills play a crucial role in the realization of business goals.

Self Analysis

Our venture into business has offered me invaluable lessons on entrepreneurship. I have learned my areas of strengths and weakness, as well as motivators for startup businesses. I have appreciated the role of brainstorming in the generation of business ideas, its challenges, and ways of solving attendant problems. For example, I realized when two or more come together to discuss the preferable business idea, each person might have a different perspective. The diversity of opinions on an issue helps to look at all the available options before settling on the best alternative. In this regard, it is important that one keeps an open mind so that a great opportunity does not go unnoticed because it wasn’t thought through properly. Entrepreneurship Essay

What is more…

I learned that entrepreneurship is more than just having great business ideas, being innovative, creativity, taking risks, or seizing a presenting business opportunity. Great entrepreneurs must have the entrepreneurial spirit to succeed, build strong business cultures, sustain the competitiveness needed to survive, and promote economic prosperity (Thyil & Durden 2006). The entrepreneurial spirit is characterized by passion, positivity, leadership, adaptability, and ambition. For us, were young, ambitious, flexible, and had the drive to accomplish our goals. Arguably, to succeed as an entrepreneur, there is need to believe in one’s abilities and convictions, consistently invent and innovate, and seize every opportunity that comes your way. Cope (2005) posits that there are five significant areas that should matter to entrepreneurs, including learning about oneself, the enterprise, entrepreneurial networks and environment, management of a business, and business relationships. Entrepreneurship Essay


People engage in entrepreneurial enterprises as a result of pull and push factors, including business opportunities, desire to be one’s own boss, economic difficulties, capabilities, and family tradition among others. it is important to note that nowadays with even the best academic qualifications, getting a job is becoming a challenge to qualified candidates. In this regard, entrepreneurship provides an avenue through which people can economically empower themselves and others. However, coming up with a great business idea is not easy especially when many people are involved. One of the methods that can help budding entrepreneurs develop a good business concept is brainstorming, a non-structure and informal process that is not hampered by the conventional methods of solving problems. Finally, it is important to note that this module helps students have an insight into what it takes for a business to succeed. Entrepreneurship Essay


AlMutairi, AN 2015, ‘The effect of using brainstorming strategy in developing creative problem solving skills among male students in Kuwait: A field study on Saud Al-Kharji School in Kuwait City’, Journal of Education and Practice, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 136-145.

Cope, J 2005, ‘Toward a dynamic learning perspective of entrepreneurship’, Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 373-397.

Deakins, D & Freel, M 2006, Entrepreneurship and small firms, 4th edn, McGraw-Hill, London.

Fitness Australia 2015, Business principles and guidance for fitness businesses. Available from: < >. [7 May 2019].

Gutterman, AS 2012, Definitions of entrepreneurship. Available from: <>. [7 May 2019].

Huczynski, A & Buchanan, D 2007, Organizational behavior, Prentice Hall, New York.

Kim, H. C., Song, C. H., & An, BR 2016, ‘A study on effects of personal characteristics on start-up opportunity and entrepreneurial intention of start-up’, Korean Management Consulting Review, vol.16, no. 3, pp. 75-87.

Kim, JY, Choi, DS, Sung, C &  and Joo Y. Park, JY 2018, ‘The role of problem solving ability on innovative behavior and opportunity recognition in university students’, Journal of Open Innovation: Technology, Market, and Complexity, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 1-13.

Khan, MA 2018, Creativity and the business idea. Available from: <>. [7 May 2019].

Kirzner, IM 1997, How Markets Work: Disequilibrium, Entrepreneurship and Discovery,The Institute of Economic Affairs, London.

Pahuja, A &  Sanjeev, R 2015, Introduction to entrepreneurship. Available from: <…/301659818_Introduction_to_Entrepreneurship.>. [7 May 2019].

Schumpeter, JA1934, The theory of economic development, Harvard University Press, Cambrige, MA.

Scott, SG & Bruce, RA 1994, ‘Determinants of innovative behavior: A path model of individual innovation in the workplace’, Academy of Management Journal, vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 580-607.

Shane, S & Venkataraman, S 2000, ‘The promise of entrepreneurship as a field of Research’, Academy of Management Review, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 217-226.

Thyil, V & Durden, G 2006, What exactly is entrepreneurial spirit? A conceptual framework and empirical evidence. Available from:<>. [9 May 2019].

Tiryaki, A. (2005). ‘Theories of Entrepreneurship: A Critical Overview’, Dumlupınar Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, vol.13, pp. 31-42.

Public Relations

Public Relations can sometimes be the Subject of Stereotyping and Misconceptions in the Mass Media

Negative mass media portrayal

Many disciplines have suffered negative portrayal from the mass media, and this has dented their public image.  Various channels of communication such as Television, Newspapers, Radio, and the Internet have been used to disseminate information to the mass audience (Jo, 2009). For centuries, the general public has heavily relied on these channels of communication to inform them on the emerging trends in a variety of issues such as politics, crime, education, entertainment, culture, food, travel, and environment among others. Unfortunately, these platforms of the mass media have intentionally or inadvertently been used to propagate negative stereotypes and misconceptions regarding various disciplines. For instance, Public Relations (PR) included. Due to this inaccurate portrayal of PR, Coombs and Holladay (as cited in Penning, 2008, p. 344) posit that “the term “public relations” is misunderstood, tainted negatively, and regarded with suspicion by the public.” In light of this, the PR industry has greatly suffered an unfavorable public opinion.  Therefore, the focus of this paper is to highlight how the mass media has represented public relations, the impact of the inaccurate portrayals, and the strategies used by PR practitioners to minimize these misrepresentations. Public Relations

Public Relations

In recent times, Public Relations discipline has increasingly been negatively represented in the mass media to the extent that it has lost its luster in the eyes of the public. PR has been defined as “the management function that establishes and maintains mutually beneficial relationships between an organization and the publics on whom its success or failure depends” (Broom & Cutlip, p. 7). According to the Public Relations Society of America (2019), “public relations is a strategic communication process that builds mutually beneficial relationships between organizations and their publics” (par. 5). Unfortunately, there is a disconnection between how the public perceives the PR profession and how PR practitioners define it. These misperceptions arise as a result of the media’s inaccurate and simplified representations. According to Kilgore, Linnane, Johnson and Booton (2014), when the Sultan of Brunei introduced strict Islamic laws in his Sultanate that provided severe punishments such as amputations, public flogging, and death by stoning for various offences, there was widespread boycott of his properties. The Sultan’s actions attracted bad publicity which saw top celebrities such as Jay Leno, Sir Elton John, and Ellen De Generes rally people to reject his properties, and it the Sultan suffered huge losses running into millions of dollars in cancellations and reduced sales of his properties. Therefore, bad press can lead to creation of misconceptions and formation of stereotypes against public relations.

Mass media ability

The mass media has a potent capability of shaping people’s views, feelings, and perceptions towards something or someone. This ability is grounded in certain theoretical models such as the priming theory agenda setting theory, and the framing theory. The Priming theory is premised on the assumption that the media primes its target on audience on what to think about a particular issue. The agenda setting model argues that the media purposely selects stories which it packages and presents in a certain manner thereby determining what people think about in terms of the relevance and importance of that news story. On the other hand, the framing theory presupposes that a news item is presented using certain frames, including words, phrases, images, timing, and context so that it is interpreted in a particular way. According to Coombs and Holladay (2013), majority of the people learn about public relations from the mass media, which unfortunately can choose to highlight certain PR practices and shun others. According to Keenan (as cited in Penning, 2007), the media tends to portray public relations as a discipline solely focused on attaining publicity. This negative and limited view of PR by the mass media is what informs public discourse. It is important to note that PR practitioners become visible when an individual or company is embroiled in some form of scandal or controversy, and given human beings’ proclivity for sensationalism, people tend to think that parties involved are trying to cover up something, even if there is nothing to be hidden. Thus, the media is instrumental in shaping public opinion by influencing their feelings, attitudes, and perception towards certain issues depending on how it represents them to the mass audience.

The Impact of Inaccurate Portrayals on the Work Of PR Practitioners

The inaccurate portrayal of public relations in the media can have serious implications for the profession and the work of PR practitioners. Grunig and Hunt (1984) posit that, as a management function, PR constitutes the establishment of communication channels between an organization and its publics. In other words, the intent of public relations is to foment mutually beneficial relationships between an organization and other stakeholders. Unfortunately, individuals and corporate companies have set a bad precedence which has led to the media’s propensity to paint any PR exercise in bad light. For example, it is common practice to find that the first reaction of persons or organizations caught up in scandals is to deny their involvement, but when the truth is established these individuals or corporate embark on repairing their damaged image. Due to the insincerity of such actions, the public is forced to believe that the PR exercises are meant to save face, and by this time the damage has already been done. When there is doubt among the mass audience about such situations, a person’s reputation or a business’s performance and profitability can be negatively affected. It is important to note that the mass media is keen on exploiting such situations that improve their ratings and profitability, and will ensure that it exposes the truth behind any denials of culpability in scandals. The public follows the cue and becomes suspicious of the intentions of the PR practitioners, hence formation of stereotypes and misconceptions about public relations.

Steps To Mitigate the Inaccurate Portrayals

Public relations practitioners have an uphill task of ensuring that the public perceives them and their profession in positive light. A favorable image can be attained through several strategies aimed at changing the negative public opinion of PR. In this regard, PR practitioners can undertake the following steps to redeem and enhance their reputation as well as that of their profession: Firstly, it is important to create a mutual and beneficial working relationship with the public so as to build trust. When an organization is trusted, the media will first want to establish the truth and the reasons behind any action that threatens to damage the reputation of a person or organization. Thus, and individual or company will have ample time to explain away the circumstances and this will ensure that they maintain their integrity. Secondly, it is imperative that a person or organization is ready to own up any mistakes committed. The media feeds on sensationalism to shore up its sales, and any attempt to cover up a scandal can only attract widespread media coverage. When people or firms accept that they are fully responsible for mistakes committed, it takes away the media attention and tends to build public trust. Lastly, there is need for public awareness of the role of public relations. Initiatives geared towards sensitizing the public about the roles and responsibilities of PR practitioners will enhance public understanding.


Negative portrayal of public relations in the media has deleterious consequences for the profession and its practitioners in terms of creation of stereotypes and misconceptions, but this can be avoided through implementation of several strategies. The inaccurate portrayal of PR arises as a result of simplifications and inaccuracies perpetrated by the media. Newspapers, television, radio, and the Internet have been used to represent PR in bad light, and the public has easily accepted what is in the media as the truth. Stereotypes and misrepresentations can have serious consequences to the reputation of an individual and performance of an organization. It is imperative that PR practitioners create working relationships with their publics, own up their mistakes in advance, and engage in public awareness initiatives to enhance their public image.


Broom, G. M., & Cutlip, S. M. (2009). Effective public relations. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, Pearson.

Coombs, W. T., & Holladay, S. J. (2013). It’s Not Just PR: Public Relations in Society. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons.

Grunig, J. E., & Hunt, T. (1984). Managing public relations. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.

Jo, S. (2009). The Portrayal of Public Relations in the News Media. Journal of Mass Communication and Society, 6(4), 397-411.

Kilgore, T., Linnane, C., Johnson, A., & Booton, J. (2014). 7 companies hurt by bad publicity. MarketWatch. Retrieved from

Penning, T. (2008). First impressions: US media portrayals of public relations in the 1920s. Journal of Communication Management, 12(4), 344-358.

Public Relations Society of America. (2019). About public relations. Retrieved from

Country Research

Country Research Project


The project will illustrate the opportunities and associated risks involved in the development of a company providing cloud-based software to small and medium business in Germany. The research will primarily focus on the innovation and technology market of medium-sized companies in Germany which have been left out by the giant providers due to low profitability in the investments. The level of technology within the country has grown significantly due to the existing trends and innovations around the world with a market gap among the small and medium-sized companies. Primarily this is because the cost of installation and maintenance provided by the existing company is slightly higher making it difficult for these organization to adapt. Besides, over the past years, the association between the United States and the German government has disrupted the operations making these large organizations to stop their activities within the region. As a result, this will be an opportunity to venture given the fact that there will be an opportunity to capitalize before the political and economic stability between the United States of America and Germany. Therefore, it is crucial to understand the essential needs which the small and medium-sized companies in Germany will benefit from through the provision of the software which brings together internal communications, projects; clients work in one location. Country Research

Economic Risks

Every country in the world has its investment opportunities which often attracts different companies to operate. Further, the potential opportunities which are available in Germany are essential but also attracts the economic risks to the interested businesses.  These risks are mainly entailing the macroeconomic conditions of the foreign country. There are various economic risks which will affect the operation of this company in Germany. Government regulations can be one of the economic risks which the company may experience because there are laws which can be imposed to affect the business operations (Boddewyn 90). These may consist of increased taxation of the foreign companies which may in turn influence the activity of the business negatively.

Existing misunderstandings of the European Union and the United States

Notably, the existing misunderstandings of the European Union and the United States over the past years can cause sanction or higher taxation of the company operations within their country. The other economic risk possibility of exchange rates between the nations. The currency rate of Germany will automatically affect the business operations due to the valuation of money which would require proper management to complete a transaction. An increase in the exchange rate in favor of the business might lead to more value of the business operations. The decrease, on the other hand, can result in the loss of the business value of the activities. For instance, in case the company wants to borrow money from the united states of America then the amount to be repaid may accumulate more interest than expected (Quadrini 22). In general, the economic risks are considered as one of the reasons for the investment to carry higher risk as compared to the local operation of business activities. The management is put into the risk to deal with exposed transactions of the business activities. Additionally, these economic risks can also be useful when the management of the business critically evaluate them to outweigh the challenges. Country Research

The Cultural Risks

There are various restrictions in doing business activity in Germany due to the existing cultural practices. For instance, the typical business culture meetings in Germany often starts slowly where the decisions are not usually made until the end. There is a large gap which exists between the executive level and the rest of the company because the process of decision making is considered to be made by an individual or board of directors. One of the cultural risks associated with doing in Germany is the relationship ties of people which can impact the operations of the business needs to meet its objectives. Therefore, there are various cultural aspects which need to be put into consideration before developing business in Germany.

Understanding of personal space

The understanding of personal space can be different from other people. Primarily this is because Germany has a warm and welcoming belief of acceptance which exists especially after doing businesses with them. Further, they also have a strict perception of time given the fact that they often tend to arrive early for meetings more than the Americans. As a result, it would be essential to understand and comply with such changes to operating the business effectively in Germany (Boddewyn 98). The fundamental principle in the cultural risks to conduct business in Germany should be managed to realize the cultural differences which may affect the business operations. Primarily the business such as providing software for business requires much attention and need to embrace cultural aspects to minimize failure and capitalize on opportunities. Country Research

Political Risks

The uncertainties of business risks are not limited to the political factors which have multiple needs to be understood. Most of the countries experience these risks due to the instability of the government. The concern is made on the aspect of the stability or effectiveness of the government with the aims of protecting the business interests. Lack of proper foreign trade policies can cause the business operations to lose the value and profitability in the long run. The political risks can be divided into macro and microelements(Boddewyn 102). The macro risks impact consists of events such as civil war major international confrontations between government. For instance, the political risk which is facing Germany is the confrontation with the United States over the business ties and conflicts due to the disagreement of partnerships, primarily through their companies.

Types of political risks

Notably, there are different types of political risks which consist of expropriation where the government can seize or confiscate the investment of the company. The other risk is the transfer and conversion where the foreign government can decide to impose prohibitions and restrictions on the conversations of local currency. This can prevent their money from leaving the country and in turn hinder the business operations. Therefore, the business should be ready to prepare ways in which it can protect itself from these potential political risks. The primary measure to consider is the political risk insurance which is crucial to protect the investment from unforeseen events. The emerging trends of political risks are often predictable in emerging markets within the contemporary world. The need to initiate these potential risks need proper planning and mitigation strategies to put in place for preventing the possibility of such occurrence in business operations. Country Research

Financial Risks

The financial risk is the possibility in which the management and other shareholders of a business can lose money through investment in companies which have debts or prove to have inadequate cash to meet the financial obligations. The focus is to develop the ability to manage the finance and debt leverage to cover and generate sufficient revenue for operational expenses (Quadrini 20). The investment in foreign nations is advised to be looked into to increase the total return of the business portfolio by diversifying the benefits to achieve additional low correlation assets of the targeted market. Therefore, various risks in which a company is providing software can experience in the long run. These consist of higher transaction costs that can be the likely barrier to invest in the international markets.

The level of globalization

The level of globalization often varies and depends on the market targeted for investing. For instance, the charges within the local markets of Germany is affected by various aspects such as corruption in the business market. Bribery and corruption claims are considered one of the significant problems and deemed illegal by the government. Although there are improvements over the past years, it is imperative to understand the need to put into consideration of such factors in achieving the targeted goals (Quadrini 22).  The other financial risk which can face the business in Germany is the liquidity risks which is also a coherent experience in foreign markets. The ability to not able to sell the stock or product quickly should be a concern to business management. There are many measures which can be used to evaluate the liquidity of an asset before the purchase. One of the ways is through observing the bid-ask spread when selling the products in the country. The bottom-line aspect which should be put into consideration is to understand the possible financial risk expected in Germany to assist in developing strategies and measures to mitigate them to achieve a business objective. Country Research

Market Potential and Entry Strategy    

The market entry is always a planned delivery and distribution method in which products and services are made to the target market. Developing a new business venture in providing cloud-based software to small and medium business is a potential opportunity in Germany. The development of this opportunity is signified through the high costs of the services offered by the existing firms within the country. Besides, it is imperative to understand that the current situation of telecommunication reforms and development has significantly improved. The adoption of ICTs access can be described to have grown on the penetration per 100 inhabitants to an average of 70% due to the influence of the wireless creation (Wu et al. 9). Further, this growth has also advanced to represent a GDP of about 7% which are about the development of mobile telephony. In regards to the broadband development, there is an increase in penetration in Germany to a tune of about 87% making it among the highest rate broadband penetration Europe. According to cloud computing monitor, there is an indication that every two out of three companies use cloud computing solutions in Germany (Wu et al. 9). These reports thus indicate the potential growth in the industry of information technology that has a target market for the business venture.

Trends of business operations

The market entry in such an industry is vital to research with the aim to assist in clarifying the trends of business operations. There are various factors to consider before the business entry to build a winning market entry strategy. Setting clear goals on the specific need to achieve in the new market such as the expectation of sales to obtain should be put into consideration. Primarily this can be achieved through a proper understanding of the market by learning the social, political and cultural climate (Lieberman 532). The other element to consider is the need to study the level of competition. Analysis indicates that the level of competition for the small and medium-sized company is higher but only need the right price of the product to achieve the goals.

Organizational Structure and Business Operations

The organizational structure of the business venture would require a simple hierarchical form which is characterized by the function base as well as the hierarchy. The management would focus on building a functional structure organization in which the operations will undertake the supervision, directions allocation of responsibilities and management accordingly. The management will select the processes and presentations on how to carry the duties. This form of organizational structure will assist the business venture to make entry strategy options to make quick decision-making processes as the members of the group will be able to interconnect effortlessly among each other (Kim and Sungwook 40). Moreover, this form of management of business operations will assist in improving employee performance because it outlines the tasks given to the employees where the manager is responsible for overseeing the employees. Country Research

Marketing and Management Focus

Market Targeting segmentation and positioning strategies are some of the measures which can be used by the technology innovation business venture to market its operation within the targeted market. Market segmentation entails the process of dividing the market according to potential customers into groups of various characteristics. The creation of segments is composed of consumers who respond in a similar way in which the marketing strategies supports their interests, needs, and locations. The importance of market segmentation assists the company to target the segmented groups instead of each potential customer individually.

Business activities

Similarly, it also reduces the possible risk of an unsuccessful or ineffective marketing campaign (Chonko and Shelby 90). Developing a marketing strategy would be essential to impact business activities within the target market. The use of the marketing mix can be a useful strategy to analyze and set controllable and tactical marking tools for the business venture. The management focus, on the other hand, can be designed to meet the leadership ability in the operations of the business venture. One of the ways the management focus can be applied is through cost leadership and differentiation strategies. The cost leadership strategy describes the desire to compete based on the prices by targeting the narrow market.  The business venture which applies this strategy is not necessarily charging the lowest price in the industry, but instead, it relatively lowers the prices to compete within the targeted market. The use of differentiation strategy focuses on offering features which fulfill the demands of the narrow market. It also entails the use of low-cost forms by using different channels of sales on their product.


The industry of cloud-based computing services is one of the advanced fields which requires proper strategy management to achieve the goals within different markets. Providers and business ventures often face different challenges within their target markets. There are various useful recommendations which should be put into consideration to mitigate these issues. The service provided by the business venture should be unique in terms of differentiation from other companies in the market. Primarily this can be in regards to cloud management solutions offered to the customers which need to have the leverage of the latest hardware’s, software solutions and virtualization to support the connection of data centers. The other recommendation is the service management where the company should provide a quantified service set with applications that the end user can consume through the provider. This ensures customer loyalty because the clients have been guaranteed of the safety, metering measures billing cycles and resource management systems.

Works cited

Boddewyn, Jean J. “Political aspects of MNE theory.” The Eclectic Paradigm. Palgrave Macmillan, London, 2015, pp. 85-110.

Chonko, Lawrence B., and Shelby D. Hunt. “Reflections on ethical issues in marketing management: An empirical examination.” Journal of Global Scholars of Marketing Science, vol.28, no.1, 2018, pp.86-95.

Kim, Stephen K., and Sungwook Min. “Business model innovation performance: when does add new business; model benefits an incumbent.” Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal vol. 9, no.1, 2015, 34-57.

Lieberman, Marvin B., Gwendolyn K. Lee, and Timothy B. Folta. “Entry, exit, and the potential for resource redeployment.” Strategic management journal vol.38, no.3, 2017, pp. 526-544.

Quadrini, Vincenzo. “The external risks of financial integration for emerging economies.” Essays sober Political, economic vol.35, no.82 2017, pp.18-24.

Wu, Dazhong, et al. “Cloud-based design and manufacturing: A new paradigm in digital manufacturing and design innovation.” Computer-Aided Design vol.59, 2015, pp.1-14.




In law, a will is a legally binding document through which an individual, referred to as the testator, names the beneficiaries of his or her estate or personal properties upon their death. However, some people die intestate, that is, without living a will, and when this happens the estate should be shared in accordance with the rules of intestacy (Citizens Advice par. 1). According to the intestate rules, the beneficiaries of a dead person’s estate will include his or her married or civil partner at the time death occurs. Additionally, all the children of the dead person are also eligible for inheritance within the existing common law. Memorandum


The following individuals are entitled to inherit Roman Round’s estate:

Wives: Alice.

Children: Annie, Fannie, and Rupert


Under the common law in the state of Glacier, Roman Round was legally married to Susan in a civil ceremony. In this regard, Annie and Fannie are Round’s legitimate children from his first marriage. Similarly, Alice is recognized as Round’s second wife under the common law in Glacier, for she was married by at a time when Roman became a widower and lived as man and wife for more than seven years. Their child, Rupert is the legitimate one under the law. However, Round’s marriage to Nora is not recognized under the laws of Forest for the reason that they got married at a time he was still married to Alice. Therefore, Fred is an illegitimate child.


In the states of Glacier and Forest, the provisions of the common law are as follows: When a person dies without living a will as to how his property is to be inherited among the remaining family members, the law states that his property will be divided equally among the beneficiaries, including his living and legal wife and legitimate children. It is important to note that under the law considers legitimate children to be those born out of a valid marriage. In this regard, two people who have been married in a civil ceremony or cohabited for more than seven years are considered to be validly married. However, entering into a marriage when still married to someone else invalidates the second union, for the law does not recognize bigamy. Memorandum

In regard to the inheritance of Roman Round’s estate, the situation for each individual is as follows:

Susan: She was Round’s first wife and was eligible to inherit part of his estate, but since she is dead, she is not entitled to anything.

Annie: As legitimate child from the first marriage, she is entitled to inherit her father’s estate.

Fannie: Round’s legitimate daughter with Susan and she is also eligible to inherit part of the estate.

Alice: She is Round’s second legal wife for two reasons, firstly, she got married after the death of Susan and, secondly, they had cohabited for more than seven years. She is eligible to share the estate.  

Homer: He is not entitled to anything from Round’s estate because he is born out of wedlock hence illegitimate.

Rupert: He is entitled to part of his father’s estate because he is born of a valid marriage.

Rudy: As an adopted child, she is not Round’s legitimate child hence not entitled to anything in the estate.

Nora: She is not entitled to anything she her marriage is invalid under the bigamy provisions.

Fred: He is an illegitimate child born of an invalid marriage hence not entitled to share his father’s estate.


In Glacier and Forest, the common law provides for the people who are eligible to share the estate left behind by a person who dies intestate. These include surviving wife who is legally married and all his children who are born of a valid marriage. A marriage is considered valid or legal if the union is a civil ceremony or the partners have cohabited for more than seven years. Importantly, if someone marries another person while still married to the first partner, the second marriage is considered invalid. Therefore, Round’s estate can only be shared between his legal wife and legitimate children. Memorandum

Works Cited

 “Who can inherit if there is no will – the rules of intestacy.” Citizens Advice, 25 Mar. 2019,


The Positive and Negative Effects of Patriotism

One’s native land

Patriotism is informed by nationalistic feelings towards one’s native land. People support their country for various reasons, which include national security, social progress, economic development, and political independence. Patriotism becomes a positive phenomenon when this kind of support for a country is based on affirmative aspects, such as promotion of human rights, freedom of expression, social cohesion, and freedom of worship. However,patriotism becomes inherently a negative concept when there is blind support of the native land leaders who subject the citizens to a life of misery, police brutality, economic ruin, and political persecution. In this regard, patriotism can be positive if it is in support of human rights, freedoms, and tax compliance, while it will be negative if it violates the universal human rights.

Civic duty and moral virtue

            In political circles, the support of one’s country is regarded as a civic duty and moral virtue. Progressive countries have ensured that their citizens enjoy certain rights and freedoms that are enshrined in international law and conventions. For example, the right to life, the right to own property, religious freedom, and respect for universal human rights are hallmarks of democratic nations. At the basic minimum, the embodiment of human rights provides the appropriate environment for the promotion of human welfare in any society, and democratic governments are best suited to enforce these rights (Landman, 2018). Additionally, the protection of human rights best serves to bring about equitable and just societies. In this context, if an individual defends or supports his or her country because it promotes these rights and freedoms, then patriotism becomes inherently a noblething.

Social and economic development of a country

            The social and economic development of a country is the responsibility of citizens as well as their government. When people engage in income generating activities and comply with laid down rules and regulations governing business transactions, a nation is bound to realize enviable social and economic development. For instance, the taxes people pay to their government is used to build infrastructure, fund education programs, finance healthcare services, provide services, and pay salaries. According to Konrad & Qari (2012), a country and its institutions rely on citizens’ tax compliance, which can be enhanced through patriotism as a promotional tool. Thus, the activation of patriotic feelings among the citizens is important in their motivation to pay taxes used to support the development agenda so that a country can reach its societal goals.

Negative effects of patriotism

            Lastly, patriotism has its negative effects, especially when one supports his or her country despite the attendant social ills that plague its citizens. Some nations are known for their violation of the fundamental human rights, suppression of political freedom, economic hardships, and limitation of educational opportunities. The limitation of democratic spaces in autocratic regimes is a violation of people’s universal rights as human beings (Landman, 2018). Despotic leaders subject their people to untold suffering so as to remain in power for as long as they want. The support of such a country is not only morally wrong but is negative patriotism at work. Misplaced patriotism can lead to social injustices, civil strives, economic hardships, and political persecutions.

Positive or negative concept

            Patriotism can be either a positive or negative concept, and this depends on what is being supported by an individual. It is in order to display total devotion and loyalty to one’s country if it is done for universally accepted reasons. For instance, it is appropriate to support a government when it is committed to the promotion of human rights, democratic space, and fundamental freedoms. Similarly, paying taxes as a patriotic act is acceptable for purposes of socio-economic development. However, patriotism can have negative effects, especially when it is abused and misplaced. For instance, when people support their country despite its violation of basic human rights and freedoms, then this patriotism is misguided.


Konrad, K. A., & Qari, S. (2012). The last refuge of a scoundrel? Patriotism and tax compliance. Economica, 79(315), 516-533.

Landman, T. (2018). Democracy and human rights: Concepts, measures, and relationships. Politics and Governance, 6(1), 48-59.

Irrational design

Irrational design

Opportunities and challenges

New business start-ups are faced with both opportunities and challenges that can either enable them break-even or fail. In her article titled “Irrational Design, a San Francisco Start-Up, Tries to Fly Solo” writer Adriana Gardella talks to Irrational Design’s founders and brings to the fore their perspective s on the importance of bootstrapping.  I support Adam Abrons and Jared Cosulich’s viewpoints that investor involvement in new business enterprises can stifle business ideas. New start-ups that bootstrap have the flexibility to experiment on new ideas without fear of investor interference. However, investors can also play a critical role in the growth of a new business through financial support. Therefore, I believe to a certain extent bootstrapping works to the advantage of new business ventures. Irrational design

Merits and demerits

Working on three different products at the same for a new business enterprise has its merits and demerits. The advantage of developing three products simultaneously is that it enables a company to have a fall-back plan in case one or two products fail. The company can continue with developing any one of the successful products and stop production of those that fail. On the down side, if the three products succeed, a financially strapped start-up will not be able to pursue them equally due to lack of resources. Abrons and Cosulich are taking several risks by bootstrapping and they include facing scarcity of resources due to financial hardships which may hinder product development and they may become complacent because they report to no one but themselves. Therefore, bootstrapping can be a constraint to the growth of a new business. Irrational design

Business growth and prosperity

Every entrepreneur wants his or her business to grow and prosper. Bootstrapping can have positive or negative effects on a new start-up. Those who bootstrap have the benefit of flexibility and can experiment with new ideas with worrying about other interested parties. However, it also denies a company the much-needed capital necessary for growth. Therefore, depending on the growth of the company, bootstrapping presents both opportunities and challenges that can make or break a new start-up. Irrational design

Works Cited

Gardella, Adriana.  “Irrational Design, a San Francisco Start-Up, Tries to Fly Solo.” The New York Times, 16 Feb. 2011,…/17sbiz-irrational-design.html.  Accessed 13 October 2018.



“Indian Men, Afro-Creole Women”

In her article titled Indian Men, Afro-Creole Women: ‘Casting’Doubt on Interracial Sexual Relationships in the Late Nineteenth-Century Caribbean, Audra A. Diptee argues that available scholarship on Indian migrants and their interracial interactions with the natives of the Caribbean region during the 18th and early 19th century is largely shallow in content and focus. For instance, the author notes that Indian women, despite constituting a small group of immigrants, they have received a wider scholarly coverage unlike their native counterparts. Furthermore, the article also establishes that there is evidently a lacuna in literature in regard to the role and place of Afro-creole in their interracial relationships with men of Indian origin.[1] Therefore, Audra Diptee examines the cultural interactions, sexual relationships, and labour relations between Indian migrants and the Natives in the Caribbean between 1839 and 1920. INDENTURED LABOUR

The author’s arguments

The author’s arguments seek to highlight the realities that shaped the experiences of the inhabitants of the Caribbean, and why available literature does not present a complete picture of the happenings that took place in the region during the mid 18th and early 19th centuries. Using relevant historical primary sources, it is the author’s contestation that the scholarly accounts are inadequate and incomplete. Evidently, Diptee establishes that Afro-creole women had a say in the kind of sexual relationships they had with Indian men, and were not merely objects of sexual desire. However, these relationships were defined within the confines of structural limitations, cultural practices, and socio-economic status. Thus, the article brings into focus the dynamics of a society that was tempered by gender imbalances, plantation demands, cultural changes, prejudices, and racial identity. INDENTURED LABOUR


Diptee, Audra. “Indian Men, Afro-Creole Women: ‘Casting’ Doubt on Interracial Sexual Relationships in the Late Nineteenth-Century Caribbean.” Immigrants & Minorities 19, no. 3(2000): 1-24.

  1. Audra Diptee, “Indian Men, Afro-Creole Women: ‘Casting’ Doubt on Interracial Sexual Relationships in the Late Nineteenth-Century Caribbean,” Immigrants & Minorities 19, no. 3(2000): 1.