- Use the readings and your research to examine a formal simulation model in policy-making. Consider the following as you review the literature:
- How does the model fit into the need of a selected organization?
- How can validity and formality be applied to the model?
- Your submission should be approximately 500 words and demonstrate proper APA formatting and style. You do not need to include a cover page or abstract, but be sure to include your name, assignment title, and page number in the running header of each page. Your assignment should include a minimum of four references from your unit readings and your research; the sources should be appropriately cited throughout your paper and in your reference list. Use meaningful section headings to clarify the organization and readability of your paper.
Question 2 :
Create a thread and post 3 comments
Chapter 7 presents a comparative analysis of various tools useful in policymaking. Select two tools described in chapter 7 from different categories, and describe how these tools could be used to develop a policy for optimizing bus and local train schedules to minimize energy use and passenger wait times in a SmartCity environment.
To complete this assignment, you must do the following:
A) Create a new thread. As indicated above, select two tools described in chapter 7 from different categories, and describe how these tools could be used to develop a policy for optimizing bus and local train schedules to minimize energy use and passenger wait times in a SmartCity environment.
B) Select AT LEAST 3 other students’ threads and post substantive comments on those threads. Your comments should extend the conversation started with the thread.
Question 1 (Naveena Kadam): Select two tools described in chapter 7 from different categories, and describe how these tools could be used to develop policy for optimizing bus and local train schedules to minimize energy use and passenger wait times in a SmartCity environment. Using Big Data Analytics for improved public transport in SmartCity. It helps to improve transportation planning and demonstrate the potential for developing analytical models to enhance public service delivery. Using GPS bus data to map problematic locations, and using passenger tap-in data, or the moment a passenger starts a ride, to gain insights on passenger behavior through origin-destination (OD) statistics and waiting times (Ratti, 2016). Big data for social transportation brings unprecedented opportunities for resolving transportation problems for which traditional approaches are not competent and for building the next-generation intelligent transportation systems. Even when mapping problematic locations, GPS data from bus lanes could be combined with crowdsourced traffic data to compare regular traffic lanes with bus-restricted lanes. Based on Big Data Analytics tool, it helps to identify easily the number of hours between consecutive trips (weekday, weekend), types of bus lines (peak time in morning/evening, peak time in morning, peak time in evening), top destination lines, and top origin-destination pairs at different levels- station, line, sub-district, city levels (Sperling, 2018). Determining which stations have the longest waiting times, the city administration can make a number of targeted changes and improvements to their operations, such as deploying more officers and barriers to secure dedicated lines in typically congested areas and adding buses on certain routes. Visualization is another tool to improve transport service in SmartCity. Much can be done to improve the readability of tabular output including the use of traffic lighting which can help call attention to operational problems; the use of hyperlinking to provide immediate access supplemental information in the form of tables, charts, and maps; and the development of interactive software applications for data query and display purposes. Such applications can target specific business needs related to the day-to-day management of transit operations and can also be used as part of longer-term performance monitoring and evaluation programs. Information graphics in the form of charts, maps, and abstract diagrams can and should be more fully leveraged because of their ability to further summarize what would normally be tabular data, greatly aiding the understanding of complex phenomena (Townsend, 2013). While maps can be used to present spatial information with a high degree of accuracy, it is apparent that space and time can be abstracted with little loss of information. It is also evident that transit data visualization techniques capable of displaying multiple transit performance measures at one time can do much in the way of helping to explain important relationships. References Ratti, C., & Claudel, M. (2016). The city of tomorrow: Sensors, networks, hackers, and the future of urban life. Yale University Press. Sperling, D. (2018). Three revolutions: steering automated, shared, and electric vehicles to a better future. Island Press. Townsend, A. M. (2013). Smart cities: Big data, civic hackers, and the quest for a new utopia. WW Norton & Company.
Thread 2 :
question 2 : (bindu priyanka) From the categories mentioned, I selected Simulation and choose Matlab and Arena as my tools to describe the SmartCity environment. By adopting the Matlab simulation tool, the arrival times of the buses were scheduled, or the departure time and the arrival time of the buses will be planned by using time control points and these are accessed as bus stops. With the help of these arrival times, the status of the bus can be determined where the bus is running early or late. This will be used for the operator and driver. These pre-determined arrival times of the buses help the driver to manage the speed between two continues stops, so that they can be at the correct time at the next stop. So that the om-time performance of the buses will be improved. The time control plan is used increasingly in the bus time schedule so that the use of bus services will be increased, and the services will be provided reliable. There are some fundamental decisions to be followed in schedule design. The bus departure times to be recorded. Selecting a series of bus stops in a route. Calculating the scheduled arrival time for each stop. The first decision mainly depends on the passenger demand along a route by balancing the waiting time and the operating costs. The decision is largely independent. There have been several studies for selecting a different time control points and also suggested certain rules for operations. These studies have proposed different methods for optimizing the 2 decisions simultaneously. The use of the Arena tool for simulation, a practical bus schedule was designed I which the bus schedule ties at the time control points were calculated such that they should be coordinated with the train schedules in order to avoid inconvenience and also reduce the problems as of result of increasing bus facilities. There is a possibility of demand for transfer from train services to bus service in intermodal bus and train networks. The transfer from bus to train causes some disability which can be reduced by using the method proposed in this study. There is only one difference lies in the transfer of train to bus and its disability calculation which is further explained in 4emark 2, for the further classification in considering the problem this study focuses on the transfer demand of the bus to the train. References Dou, X., Yan, Y., Guo, X., & Gong, X. (2016). Time control point strategy coupled with transfer coordination in bus schedule design. Journal of Advanced Transportation, 50(7), 1336-1351. Lu, K., Han, B., & Zhou, X. (2018). Smart urban transit systems: from an integrated framework to an interdisciplinary perspective. Urban Rail Transit, 4(2), 49-67
question 3: nithin Visualization and persuasive tools are among the categories of tools and techniques that are used for policymaking in smart cities. They are important as they help to optimize bus and local train schedules, hence minimizing energy use and passenger wait times in these environments. These tools are said enables the passengers to get travel information, for instance, travel patterns, routes, and costs, they can also compare these costs, and also these tools allow them to make payments. These tools in general help have led to improved transportation behavior (Gössling, 2018). Ethos, Logos, and Pathos are the three primary tools that are used to persuade the audience. These tools are capable of convincing, inducing and encouraging customers. In this case, pathos is one of the best tools that can be used to appeal to passengers to travel. An organization can use these tools to deliver their messages concerning travel costs. When this tool is used wisely, makes the passenger view travel cost from a positive perspective. Tools in this category allow for traffic flows determination as well as traffic flows (Gössling, 2018). Visualization tools and techniques, on the other hand, are used to enhance designs, development, and implementation of safe transportation systems that are timely and with low costs. These tools include the use of animations, modeling, simulation and also virtual realities in any smart city. In this case, modeling is can be used in designing and simulating transport systems that are desired by a company. It involves the use of pictures to describe different routes hence allowing their customers to compare them in terms of distances and costs. They also allow for scheduling for departures, hence avoiding congestion thus avoiding traffic jams. This forms an easy way of understanding, hence pleasant to customers. All these help in minimizing the use of energy and the duration that the passengers will be waiting for the departure (Gössling, 2018). References Gössling, S. (2018). ICT and transport behavior: A conceptual review. International Journal of sustainable transportation.
Write an essay on ICT tools and their role in the policy-making process.